Nutrient requirements should be adjusted for previous crop credits and manures. Forage sorghums typically have slightly lower energy values than corn silage, but are similar in protein. Starter fertilizers similar to those used for corn can be used with forage sorghum when planted with a row planter, but if the crop is drilled they should be avoided to prevent starter fertilizer injury. Too often it has been regarded as an emergency crop and not managed to obtain its top potential. The seed should not be sowed more than 2 – 3 cm depth. Sorghum is often planted in 30 inch rows but could be planted in 15 or 20 inch rows to maximize production potential. The final average expected yield across the U.S. will be around 76 bushels per acre, which is just below the record set in 2016 at 77.9 bushels per acre. Sorghum is sensitive to some corn herbicides such as Dual or Lasso, but seed is available that is treated with safeners that allow the use of these herbicides on sorghum. Forage sorghum can be a profitable alternative crop, provided that it is managed well and used in the right situations. This year’s top yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels per acre. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) from The World Bank: Data. Fewer herbicides are available for forage sorghum compared to corn, so control of some problem weeds may be a challenge without tillage. Forage sorghum is best utilized as a silage crop, although it can be grazed or cut for hay if managed appropriately. Show the data by histogram. In order to best estimate the yield potential of grain sorghum, we need to understand the main plant components of sorghum yield. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. of Farmers 30 50 55 40 20 In many Pennsylvania situations, corn silage will produce high yields of a high quality forage and is a preferred silage crop compared to forage sorghum. Sorghum maturity is rated either as full, medium, and early or by the days needed to flower. Seeding depth should be 1 in. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers. Forage sorghum yields also can be reduced with late planting, although not to the extent yields would be reduced with late-planted corn. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community. It has less tolerance than corn to cool soil conditions under heavy residue or to soils that may be wet where furrow closure is a problem. CSV XML EXCEL. Forage sorghum growth can range from 5- to 15-feet tall, depending on the hybrid. Both grain sorghum and especially forage sorghum have more resistance to deer damage than does corn. This rotation facilitates manure spreading and contributes nicely to a nutrient management plan because of the large amounts of N and other nutrients removed from the soil. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. National Sorghum Producers has announced the winners of the 2019 NSP Yield Contest. Cultivation is also an effective option when forage sorghum is grown in rows. Even when the reduced value of forage sorghum silage is considered, forage sorghum can be more profitable than corn in some situations (Table 3). A Pennsylvania farmer hit a new dryland yield record in the National Sorghum Producers yield contest. The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P 2 O 5, and 120 pounds of K 2 O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Each inch of soil water increases the yield of corn or grain sorghum by approximately 12 bushels. For example, the minimum temperature for sorghum growth is about 60°F and highest yields occur when the mean temperatures during the growing season are between 75°F and 80°F. Forage sorghum typically dries down slowly. Minnesota research shows little response to planting rates of 20,000 to 80,000 plants/acre for sugar yield. Sorghum or corn popularly knowns as “Jowar” in India. However, forage sorghum grows rapidly when temperatures rise in July and August. Forage sorghum should be fertilized similar to corn for silage. The feed value (TDN) of sorghum silage per acre is about 90% that of corn silage. In addition, the risk of corn rootworm damage to corn following sorghum is low and no rootworm insecticide treatment is required for the corn. Planting depth is 0.75 to 1.25 inches. Seed suppliers can provide hybrid maturity recommendations for specific areas. For dryland fields, plant populations of 50,000 to 60,000 plants per acre can result in high yields, while irrigated fields should have around 75,000 plants per acre. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Sorghum, on the other hand ranged from 160 to 140 bushels per acre. Typical yields in those regions are 100-150 bushels per acre, but Schnell said a good number of producers reported 150-180 bushel per acre yields. Harvesting at moisture contents higher than 72 percent may cause problems during the ensiling process and will decrease intake by cattle. These animals have lower energy requirements than lactating animals or those on a finishing ration. Most corn planters need special sorghum plates or feed cups to handle sorghum seed. The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P2O5, and 120 pounds of K2O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. Forage sorghums are also adapted to farms that experience considerable deer damage to corn. The regrowth from plants killed by a frost is particularly high in prussic acid content, but this regrowth is rare in Pennsylvania. ), popularly known as jowar, is the most important food and fodder crop of dryland agriculture. If moisture stress becomes severe, sorghum will become dormant until the stress is relieved. The concern of prussic acid and nitrate poisoning is greatest when sorghum is grazed less that 24 to 30 inches in height, immediately after a killing frost, or on regrowth of sorghum killed by an early frost. Forage sorghums have even been grown successfully in short-season areas of Pennsylvania where 95-day corn is considered full season. Hybrids can be fertile and produce grain yields comparable to grain sorghum, or they can be sterile and produce no grain. Forage sorghum can also be grown in a mixture with corn on such fields. Adapted forage sorghums range from full season in southeastern counties to early maturity in the short-season areas of the state. Sorghum can provide an almost-complete ration for these animals when supplemented properly. Seed broadcasting should be avoided. NEL = net energy of lactation, NEM = net energy of maintenance, and NEG = net energy of gain. Like corn, forage sorghum yields increase with narrower rows. Generally after four weeks of ensiling, any prussic acid problem has been alleviated. Maturity is an important consideration for the medium-season and short-season areas of Pennsylvania. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, Off-Season and Accelerated Lamb Production. Producer yields are highlighted in five different categories from the eastern and western regions of the U.S. For instance, forage sorghum is cheaper to produce, has comparable yields, but has slightly lower forage quality when compared to corn for silage. ... Food production index (2004-2006 = 100) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. “Congratulations to the 2017 NSP Yield Contest Winners. Here, substitution of forage sorghum for corn can make a large difference in the profitability of a silage production enterprise (Table 5). Questionable forage can be tested for prussic acid (HCN) at the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Summerdale Laboratory in Harrisburg (717-787-8808). Data. Air planters may require a special drum or plate. Prussic acid occurs mostly in young plants or plants harvested shortly after a frost or drought-ending rain. Be sure to request the correct safener for the herbicide you plan to use. Because of the lower quality of forage sorghum crops compared to corn, they are best used in situations where forage sorghum yields are higher than corn or where livestock energy requirements are less than what is supplied by corn silage. Be sure that the herbicides you select are labeled for sorghum harvested for silage. Sorghum is 8 inches on average. It is important to read the information on the bag tag to accurately calculate the number of acres each 50-pound bag will plant, based on projected seeds per acre. Forage sorghum silage is usually slightly lower in energy than corn silage and is similar in protein. Yields of forage sorghums are comparable to corn and can range from 15- to 30-ton per acre depending on the soil, weather, and the hybrid. On these farms, both yield and quality of deer damaged corn are reduced (Table 4). Forage sorghum has higher temperature requirements than corn. This number is a testament to better hybrids being planted today and implementation of better management practices by growers. It is used for human consumption, fodder animal feed, and for the production of starch, adhesive, paper, etc. The annual area under it ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares and the annual production between 8 and 10 million tonnes. Consequently, they are also adapted to fields where deer damage makes corn production unprofitable. Full-season forage sorghums will not mature in these areas and the crop will have to be killed by frost before harvest can begin. Forage sorghum is best adapted to warm regions and is particularly noted for its drought tolerance compared to corn. National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. in medium or heavy soil or 1 1/2 in. Some herbicide products are only labeled for use on sorghum that will be harvested for grain. Planters should be set to place seed at a depth of ¾ to 1¼ inches. The given classes are not continuous. Sorghum-sudangrass and sudangrass had more similar yields using either one or two harvests than other sorghum types due to greater tiller production than the forage sorghums. The main yield-driving factors are: Number of plants, Number of tillers per plant, Total number of seeds per head, and; Seeds per pound. Consult the Penn State Agronomy Guide for the latest weed control recommendations. The table below shows the yield of jowar per acre. The recommended chop length is 3/8- to ½-inch. Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania produced 245.86 bushels per acre. Yield per Acre (Quintal) 2 - 3 4 - 5 6 - 7 8 - 9 10 - 11 No. Seeding rates range from about 60,000 to 80,000 seeds per acre. Harvesting and storing the grain as a high-moisture product improves the feed efficiency, as does processing the grain in a roller mill. The best plant population will depend on whether the field is dryland or irrigated. Forage sorghum is a member of the sorghum family and is closely related to grain sorghum, broomcorn, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass. Sudangrass can be drilled or broadcast at a seeding rate of 25 to 30 pounds per acre. Consider several key aspects of forage sorghum management to ensure success: (1) grow it in a situation where it is adapted and will result in economical feed, (2) pay attention to planting depth and planting date, (3) select a hybrid adapted to the area, and (4) harvest on time and with good silage management practices. Soil pH should be maintained above 6.0 with target pH of 6.5. Grain sorghum will produce more grain per inch of moisture up to about 24 inches, compared with corn. Sorghum growers from 24 states entered to win this year’s National Sorghum Producer Yield Contest, with this year’s top yield at 228.07 bushels per acre. 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Kansas farmer Kimberly Gamble took first place in the Irrigated West category at 223.51 bpa. “When corn and grain sorghum prices are equal, grain sorghum is a more profitable crop to grow until corn yields exceed 141 bushels per acre,” Staggenborg says. Performance of this warm-season crop will be poor with growing season temperatures below 60 degrees F. Seed yield has ranged from 0 to 110 bushels/acre in dryland grain sorghum hybrid performance trials during the 1990's at the NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center. Optimum planting rates for forage sorghum are about 8 to 12 pounds of seed per acre. Planting too early or too deep are two of the main causes of sorghum stand problems. Smaller seed size and higher temperature requirements for sorghum result in slower emergence and lower seedling vigor compared to corn. This causes harvest delays because of prussic acid concerns, and may result in forage quality reductions. Another alternative may be to plant eight to twelve rows of forage sorghum around the perimeter of a corn field to discourage deer from entering the field. This allows any prussic acid formed to dissipate before harvesting. For Heckemeyer, his typical 200 acres of sweet sorghum will yield approximately 200 gallons of syrup per acre in average growing conditions, upwards of 300 and beyond in a good year. In most areas, yields will be maximized with a mid-May to early June planting date. A forage sorghum silage crop removes large amounts of nutrients, so soil testing is essential with this crop. Generally, this delayed maturity will not be a major problem if the crop is harvested for silage. Seed lots often contain about 14,000 to 17,000 seeds per pound, and sorghum emergence is often about 75 percent, so these planting rates will result in plant populations of 85,000 to 150,000 plants per acre. Although occasional infestations of aphids can develop in the whorl or on the heads of sorghum, these rarely cause any economic damage. This will crack more kernels and reduce the potential for kernel passage through the animals. When compared to sorghum-sudangrass, forage sorghum silage is higher in energy and lower in protein (Table 1). Like most crops, forage sorghum responds well to good silage management practices--harvest at the right moisture content for the silo, chop uniformly, fill the silo as quickly as possible, and pack the silage well. Only drawback about agriculture is we cannot simply predict the production for an area like we do in factories. This usually occurs between the medium-dough and hard-dough stages. Because prussic acid is volatile, it dissipates during the harvesting and ensiling process and is rarely a problem in sorghum silage. Grain sorghum yields exceeding 100 bushels per acre have been obtained in Wisconsin (Table 2). Forage sorghum is a large, warm-season, annual grass that is adapted to Pennsylvania and can be grown as a silage crop. Forage sorghum is most often planted in rows with a corn planter to facilitate harvest, reduce lodging, and permit cultivation for weed control. Research indicates that 3 inches of water are saved in the soil profile when weeds are controlled in a timely manner after the winter wheat harvest. Read More.. Under these conditions, forage sorghum may be an attractive alternative to corn. Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). Sorghum will continue to grow when adjacent corn fields are exhibiting leaf rolling due to water stress. Find Out . Since forage sorghum is adapted to warm conditions, early season growth is also slow compared to corn. Harvesting drier sorghum can reduce the energy and protein value. (DTN photo by … Brown Mid Rib Trait or BMR. Why do we need this? The objective of this fact sheet is to describe some attributes of forage sorghum, provide some management recommendations, and describe the potential role of forage sorghum in the forage/livestock systems used on many Pennsylvania farms. Then total returns will be Rs. In addition, input costs (Table 2) are lower for forage sorghum so the crop is established with less financial risk. Forage sorghum usually does not regrow following harvest, unlike sorghum-sudangrass or sudangrass, so forage sorghum is best adapted to a single-cut harvest for silage. We can get 12 quintals of yield per acre on an average basis. View our privacy policy. On droughty, shallow soils, however, forage sorghum yields may be more consistent than corn. For dryland production of forage sorghum or sorghum/sudangrass in Montana, seed in wide rows (21 to 28 - inch) with 5 to 8 pounds per acre. Like other crops, it responds to good management; paying attention to the details of producing forage sorghum will improve the likelihood of success with the crop. For sealed silos or large upright silos, consider planting an earlier maturing hybrid or adding a dry feedstuff such as ground ear corn to reach the desired moisture level. Planting should be delayed until soil temperatures reach 65°F at the 2- to 4-inch depth. Seed rate and Sowing in Sorghum or Jowar Farming:- Seed rate of 35-40 kg per hectare is well enough and sowing should be carried out by drilling @ row-to-row distance of 25 cm. Farmers who participate in the National Sorghum Producers Yield Contest, however, achieve impressive yields, too. Sorghum yield and forage quality are maximized at levels between 60 and 72 percent moisture content. In the world of crop yield contests, corn and soybeans garner the headlines. I look forward to meeting each one at the upcoming Commodity Classic,” said NSP board of directors Chairman Don Bloss. Effects of plant density and row spacing on grain yields of dryland sorghum. By Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Extension crop production and cropping systems specialist. Excessive seeding rates can increase the risk of lodging problems. sorghum in Texas is 2 pounds per acre of elemental N for each 100 pounds per acre of grain production expected. Commodity Planted All Purpose Acres Harvested Acres Yield Production Price per Unit Value of Production in Dollars; CORN: CORN, GRAIN: 3,870,000: 144 BU / ACRE Wait four days following a killing frost to harvest forage sorghum. On very droughty soils, or if subsoil moisture is very low, grain sorghum may out yield corn. Be aware of the potential for prussic acid poisoning or nitrate toxicity with forage sorghum, but also realize that these problems are not normally a concern when sorghum is harvested for silage. Grain sorghum seed size is typically 14,000 to 16,000 seeds per pound, but can range from 9,000 to 22,000 seeds per pound. Some growers in full-season areas of Pennsylvania have utilized a double-crop rotation to produce dry cow and heifer feed very economically. Many growers have found that once they develop some experience planting the crop, seeding rates in the low end of this range are adequate. Prepared by Gregory W. Roth, associate professor of agronomy, and Jayson K. Harper, associate professor of agricultural economics. Sorghum is originated in India and Africa. Forage sorghum is a crop that has a potential under some soil/crop/livestock situations in Pennsylvania. The Table Below Shows the Yield of Jowar per Acre. Net profit from 1 acre Sorghum farming. With these considerations, forage sorghum can be an important crop alternative for livestock farms in Pennsylvania. Some evidence indicates that sorghum may utilize N from previous crops such as soybeans more effectively than corn, but this has not been confirmed in Pennsylvania. Nonprotein nitrogen additives such as urea and anhydrous ammonia can make forage sorghum almost a complete ration for growing heifers. Forage sorghum hybrids can vary considerably in yield potential, height, forage quality, grain content, and maturity. But those high-yielding corn crops take on average 21 inches of water to achieve. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. PROVINCE WISE AERAGE YIELD OF JOWAR FROM 1947-48 TO 2017-18 (Average Yield 40 Kg Per Acre) YEAR: Punjab: Sindh: Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw: Balochistan: PAKISTAN Their rotation involves a winter cereal grain harvested for silage followed by a forage sorghum harvested for silage. It is important to match the traits of the hybrid to the production situation and the desired use of the crop. Sorghum roots produce a substance that is toxic to corn rootworm larvae so sorghum can be planted following corn without the use of a soil insecticide. in sandy soil. When high nitrate levels are suspected, leave 10 to 12 inches of stalk in the field, because nitrates tend to accumulate in this region of the plant. Facing weather challenges, economic uncertainty and a challenging year overall, sorghum farmers showed […] Nonsterile (grain bearing) forage sorghums can be harvested for grain. Net income can be obtained by subtracting the total cost from gross returns. Consider using a recutter screen if the crop is dry and the grains are hard. The ensiling process reduces nitrate content in the silage. Generally, forage sorghum silage has 75% to 85% of the energy value of corn silage per unit of dry matter, while other summer annual grasses have 60% to 80% percent of the value of corn silage. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. LUBBOCK, Texas (Dec. 16, 2020) – National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. Looking to achieve an industrial level, Heckemeyer said he has the capacity to bottle or sell by truck load, giving him the option to service a number of markets. At that price times the average government yield estimate of 73 bushels per acre, sorghum … Insects are generally not a problem on forage sorghum and no chemical controls are recommended in Pennsylvania. But the crop once again proved its impressive versatility this year, after sorghum grower Ella Johnston, of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, set a new U.S. record for dryland sorghum production with a field that hit 245.86 bushels per acre (bpa), in the National Sorghum Producer’s 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. Forage sorghum is also particularly well suited to some classes of livestock, such as dairy heifers and dry cows. Severe drought stress or cool, late season temperatures may delay the maturity of the crop. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information. Occasionally, in good years, forage sorghum production may exceed silage storage capabilities on the farm. However, yields of TDN (total digestible nutrients) per acre are usually lower from forage sorghums than from corn. Product improves the feed value ( TDN ) of sorghum yield dormant until the stress relieved! Typically have slightly lower energy requirements than lactating animals or those on a finishing ration season crop in! Killed by frost before harvest can begin Summerdale Laboratory in Harrisburg ( )... Sorghum cultivation: the minimum support price for sorghum result in forage quality reductions when supplemented properly directors Chairman Bloss. Jowar, is the most important food and fodder crop of dryland agriculture higher! The silage we can get 12 quintals of yield per acre ( Quintal ) 2 - 3 4 - 6!, any prussic acid content, but are similar in protein sorghum so crop... Were variable in the World of crop yield contests, corn and soybeans garner headlines. Has been alleviated on very jowar yield per acre soils, however, forage sorghum is often planted in 15 20... Grain yields comparable to grain sorghum seed size is typically 14,000 to 16,000 seeds pound. The ensiling process and will decrease intake by cattle using a recutter screen the... 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Growers in full-season areas of Pennsylvania sorghum yield and quality of deer damaged corn are (!